Propolis is derived from Greek. Pro means before, and polis means city. Bee propolis is often meant "before entering bee hive". It seem to mean that it protects bee hive against dangerous factors outside the hive.
Propolis is a mixture of resin substance, originated from bark and the toppings of tree, especially poplar (Populus spp.), birch (Betula spp.), or conifer (pinus species). Bees collect those substance, and then mix it with wax and their saliva. Propolis is used by bees to protect every door of the hive to sterilize every coming bee. Propolis is also used by bees to repair their hive whenever it cracks or wears.
Bees are susceptible to infection because they do not have immune system. Bees greatly rely on propolis to protect themselves, their hive, their eggs and young bees against diseases.
Subtances that contain in propolis are very complex. There are more than 200 components that have been identified. But generally propolis consists of balsam (polyphenol) 50%, resin 30%, essential oil 10%, pollen 5%, organic and anorganic substances 5%. High Polyphenol content in propolis functions as anti-bacteria, anti-viruses, anti-fungus, antioxidant, anti-inflammation and immune system.
What happens if we consume bee propolis? Do we become healthier because this substance?